Indonesian home gardens, known as pekarangan, provide the embryo of the development of open space in Indonesia. Since the time of the emperors and the colonial era, larger green open spaces have existed, including such places as gardens in the palace areas and parks in the towns.
However, in Indonesia, the field of Landscape Architecture is relatively new. It was started about 15 years after the Republic of Indonesia became independent in 1945. In the early 1960s, the first president of Indonesia, Soekarno, expressed the need for an expert in gardening or landscaping, who was well trained with integrated knowledge of agriculture, architecture, and social science. This need was identified in connection with the construction of Ganefo building, the Senayan sport stadium for conducting the Asian Games in Jakarta (now known as Bung Karno Stadium).
In order to create better living environments, the field of Landscape Architecture was developed by experts and professionals in the education sector. The “Academy of Landscape Architecture” (AKAP DCI-Jakarta) was formally founded in Jakarta on October 1, 1963. In 1970, it was renamed the “Akademi Arsitektur Pertamanan dan Perencanaan Kota Trisakti.” In 1985, Trisakti University established the Faculty of Landscape Architecture and Environmental Technology. At the same time, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB) started a study program of Landscape Architecture. In 1999, the university established a master program in this field, which was followed by a diploma program (2-3 years practical program) in 2001. And in 2003, IPB established the Indonesian Forum of Landscape Architecture Education (FPALI, Forum Pendidikan Arsitektur Lanskap Indonesia).
Currently, IPB is still the only state university providing education in Landscape Architecture at both the undergraduate and master levels. Some private universities in Indonesia have run programs of Landscape Architecture at diploma and undergraduate level. And there have been education meetings at Jember University (2002), Pajajaran University (2003), Mulawarman University (2004), Hasannudin University (2005) and Samratulangi University (2006) to provide a more elaborate national curricula for the Landscape Architecture Study Program by Directorate General of Higher Education—National Education Ministry.
More education programs in Landscape Architecture need to be developed and provided in many more Indonesian schools. According to the last Congress, Seminar and Workshop on 2-4 November 2009 in Jakarta, FPALI had 23 university members, including Bogor Agricultural University, Trisakti University, Bandung Technology Institute, University of Brawijaya, Surabaya Technology Institute, University of Lampung, University of Tribuana Tungga Dewi, Sriwijaya University, University of Veteran Surabaya, University of Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, University of Muhammadiyah Jakarta, National Science & Technology Institute/ISTN, University of Hassanudin, University of Brawijaya, University of Pakuan, University of Udayana, University of Samratulangi, University of Mulawarman, University of Tanjungpura, University of Riau, University of Gadjah Mada, University of Indonesia, and Catholic University/UNIKA Sugijapranata.
FPALI has formulated a multi-strata competency graduate program for landscape architecture. This organization is supported by linked institutions, including the Indonesian Society of Landscape Architecture, Indonesian Contractors Association, Green Build Council Indonesia, and Certification Board of Landscape Architecture.
Meanwhile, as an autonomous university, IPB has developed curricula based on the competency for each major of science. To implement the major program in landscape architecture, in 2005, after 20 years of the landscape architecture education at IPB, it created the Department of Landscape Architecture. The curricula for both undergraduate and master programs in landscape architecture education were established with the goal of understanding and using local potentials. This consideration is important in developing a “typical” Indonesian landscape design, landscape planning, and landscape management with local tropical natural resources. The Directorate General of Higher Education, Ministry of National Education, Republic of Indonesia delivered some opportunities to give research grants on the topics of sustainable development of settlements landscape, urban greenery open space planning and design, cultural and historical landscapes, local wisdom on tropical biodiversity conservation, the impact of land cover changes to landscape structure, landscape character analysis, cultural landscape management, ecological landscape design, and landscape and urbanization.Hadi Susilo Arifin, PhD, is a Professor in Landscape Management and Head of the Landscape Architecture Department at Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), and Chair of Indonesian Forum of Landscape Architecture Education (FPALI) – INDONESIA. He can be reached at: firstname.lastname@example.org and www.hsarifin.staff.ipb.ac.id.
Arifin HS 2010. Kompetensi Keilmuan dan Keprofesian serta Pengkodean Bidang Arsitektur Lanskap. [Competence and Professionalism as well as Landscape Architecture Coding.] Makalah Rapat Penataan Ulang Program Studi di PT serta Pengkodean Program Studi pada Evaluasi Program Studi Berbasis Evaluasi Diri (epsbed). [Rapat paper of the Ulang Program Study Arrangement in PT as well as Program Study Coding in the Evaluation of the Study Berbasis Program of the Diri Evaluation (epsbed)]. Direktorat Akademik, Direktorat Jendral Pendidikan Tinggi. [The Directorate was Academic, Directorate Jendral Pendidikan Tinggi.] Jakarta, 25 January 2010.
Arifin HS 2003. Laboratory of Landscape Architecture in Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia. Journal of the Japanese Institute of Landscape Architecture. Vol.67 (1): 74-75 (ISSN 1340-8984) (In Japanese).
Arifin HS and Arifin-Nurhayati HS 2007. Landscape Architecture Education in Indonesia. Seminar of “Landscape Urbanism ... blurring the line” in Singapore Polytechnic on the 10th of February 2007, Singapore.
Chozin MA and Arifin-Nurhayati HS 2003. The Development of Landscape Architecture in Indonesia. Bulletin of the Hyogo Prefectural Awaji Landscape Planning & Horticulture Academy. Vol. 2(2):140-144.
FPALI 2003. The Proceeding of the 1st Seminar and Workshop of Indonesian Forum of Landscape Architecture Education. Bogor Agricultural Univ. & Trisakti Univ. Bogor. (In Indonesian).